The Most Powerful Objects in the Universe

All across the immense reaches of time and
space, energy is being exchanged, transferred, released, in a great cosmic pinball game we
call our universe. How does energy stitch the cosmos together,
and how do we fit within it? We now climb the power scales of the universe, from atoms,
nearly frozen to stillness, to Earth’s largest explosions. From stars, colliding, exploding, to distant
realms so strange and violent they challenge our imaginations. Where will we find the most powerful objects
in the universe? Today, energy is very much on our minds as
we search for ways to power our civilization and serve the needs of our citizens. But what is energy? Where does it come from?
And where do we stand within the great power streams that shape time and space? Energy comes from a Greek word for activity
or working. In physics, it’s simply the property or the state of anything in our universe
that allows it to do work. Whether it’s thermal, kinetic, electro-magnetic,
chemical, or gravitational. The 19th century German scientist Hermann
von Helmholtz found that all forms of energy are equivalent, that one form can be transformed
into any other. The laws of physics say that in a closed system
– such as our universe – energy is conserved. It may be converted, concentrated, or dissipated,
but it’s never lost. James Prescott Joule built an apparatus that
demonstrated this principle. It had a weight that descended into water and caused a paddle
to rotate. He showed that the gravitational energy lost by the weight is equivalent to
heat gained by the water from friction with the paddle. That led to one of several basic energy yardsticks,
called a joule. It’s the amount needed to lift an apple weighing 100 grams one meter
against the pull of Earth’s gravity. In case you were wondering, it takes about
one hundred joules to send a tweet, so tweeted a tech from Twitter. The metabolism of an average sized person,
going about their day, generates about 100 joules a second, or 100 watts, the equivalent
of a 100-watt light bulb. In vigorous exercise, the power output of
the body goes up by a factor of ten, one order of magnitude, to around a thousand joules
per second, or a thousand watts. In a series of leaps, by additional factors
of ten, we can explore the full energy spectrum of the universe. So far, the coldest place observed in nature
is the Boomerang Nebula. Here, a dying star ejected its outer layers into space at 600,000
kilometers per hour. As the expanding clouds of gas became more
diffuse, they cooled so dramatically that their molecules fell to just one degree above
Absolute Zero, one degree above the total absence of heat. That’s around a billion trillionths of a
joule, give or take. That makes the signal sent by the Galileo
spacecraft, as it flew around Jupiter, seem positively hot. By the time it reached Earth,
its radio signal was down to 10 billion billionths of a watt. Now jump all the way to 150 billionths of
a watt. That’s the amount of power entering the
human eye from a pair of 50-watt car headlamps a kilometer away. Moving up a full seven powers of ten, moonlight
striking a human face adds up to three hundred thousandths of a watt. That’s roughly equivalent
to a cricket’s chirp. From there, it’s a mere five powers of ten
to the low wattage world of everyday human technologies. Put ten 100-watt bulbs together. At 1000 joules
per second, 1000 watts, that roughly equals the energy of sunlight striking a square meter
of Earth’s surface at noon on a clear day. Gather 200 bulbs, 20,000 watts is the energy
output of an automobile. A diesel locomotive: 5 million watts. An advanced jet fighter: 75 million watts. An aircraft carrier, almost two hundred million
watts. The most powerful human technologies today
function in the range of a billion to 10 billion watts, including large hydro-electric or nuclear
power plants. At the upper end of human technologies, was
the awesome first stage of a Saturn V rocket. In five separate engines, it consumed 15 tons
of fuel per second to generate 190 billion watts of power. How much power can humanity marshal? And how
much do we need? Long before the launch of the space age, visionaries
began to imagine what it would take to advance into the community of galactic civilizations. In the 1960s, the Soviet scientist, Nicolai
Kardashev, speculated that a Level 1 civilization would acquire the technology needed to harness
all the power available on a planet like Earth. According to one calculation, we are .16%
of the way there. This is based on British Petroleum’s estimate of total world oil
consumption, some 11 billion tons in 2007. Humans today generate about two and a half
trillion watts of electrical power. How does that stack up to the power generated by planet
Earth? Deep inside our planet, the radioactive decay
of elements such as uranium and thorium generates 44 trillion watts of power. As this heat rises to the surface, it drives
the movement of Earth’s crustal plates and powers volcanoes. Remarkably, that’s just a fraction of the
energy released by a large hurricane in the form of rain. At the storm’s peak, it can
rise to 600 trillion watts. A hurricane draws upon solar heat collected
in tropical oceans in the summer. You have to jump another power of ten to reach
the estimated total heat flowing through Earth’s atmosphere and oceans from the equator to
the poles… And another two to get the power received
by the Earth from the sun at 174 quadrillion watts. Believe it or not, there’s one human technology
that has exceeded this level. The AN602 hydrogen bomb was detonated by the
Soviet Union on October 30, 1961. It unleashed some 1400 times the combined
power of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima bombs. With a blast yield of up to 57,000,000 tons
of TNT, it generated 5.3 trillion trillion watts, if only for a tiny fraction of a second. That’s 5.3 Yotta-watts, a term that will
come in handy as we now begin to ascend the power scales of the universe. To Nikolai Kardashev, a Level 2 civilization
would achieve a constant energy output 80 times higher than the Russian superbomb. That’s equivalent to the total luminosity
of our sun, a medium-sized star that emits 375 yotta-watts. However, in the grand scheme of things, our
sun is but a cold spark in a hot universe. Look up into Southern skies and you’ll see
the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Deep within is the brightest
star yet discovered. R136a1 is 10 million times brighter than the
sun. Now if that star happened to go supernova,
at its peak, it would blast out photons with a luminosity of around 500 billion yottawatts. To advance to a level three civilization,
you have to marshal the power of an entire galaxy. The Milky Way, with about two hundred billion
stars, has an estimated total luminosity of 3 trillion yotta-watts, a three followed by
36 zeros. The author Isaac Asimov imagined a galaxy-scale
civilization in his Foundation series. Galaxia, he called it, is a super-organism
that surpasses time and space to draw upon all the matter and energy in a galaxy. But who’s to say that’s the upper limit
for civilizations? To boldly go beyond Level 3, a civilization
would need to marshal the power of a quasar. A
quasar is about a thousand times brighter
than our galaxy. Here is where cosmic power production enters
a whole new realm, based on the physics of extreme gravity. It was Isaac Newton who first defined gravity,
as the force that pulls the apple down and holds the earth in orbit around the sun. Albert Einstein re-defined it in his famous
General Theory of Relativity. Gravity isn’t simply the attraction of objects
like stars and planets, he said, but a distortion of space and time, what he called space-time. If space-time is like a fabric, he said, gravity
is the warping of this fabric by a massive object like a star. A planet orbits a star when it’s caught
in this warped space like a ball spinning around a roulette wheel. Some scientists began to wonder: if matter
became dense enough, could it warp space to such an extreme that nothing could escape
its gravity, not even light? With so much power being emitted from such
a small area, scientists suspected that quasars were actually being powered by black holes. How a totally dark object can do this has
been narrowed by decades of observations and theory. If a black hole spins, it can turn into a
violent, cosmic tornado. Gas and stars begin to flow in along a rapidly
rotating disk. The spinning motion of this so-called “accretion disk” generates magnetic
fields that twist up and around. These fields can channel some of the inflowing
matter out into a pair of high-energy beams, or jets. Gas and dust nearby catch the brunt of this
energy, growing hot and bright enough to be seen billions of light years away. Amazingly, the power of a black hole can rise
to even greater extremes at the moment of its birth. As a giant star ages, heavy elements like
iron gradually build up in its core. As its gravity grows more intense, the star
begins to shrink, until it reaches a critical threshold. Its core literally collapses in on itself. That causes the star to explode in a supernova.
And now, in death, the star can unleash gravity’s true fury. In the violence of the star’s death, gravity
can cause its massive core to collapse to a point, forming a black hole. In some rare cases, the new-born monster powers
a jet that accelerates to within a tiny fraction of the speed of light. For a few minutes, these so-called “gamma
ray bursts” are known to be the brightest events since the big bang… Three orders of magnitude above a quasar,
at a billion billion yotta-watts, a ten with 42 zeros. Remarkably, they are still not the most powerful
events known. Albert Einstein‘s equations contained an
astonishing prediction: that when massive bodies accelerate or whip around each other,
they can stir up the normally smooth fabric of space-time. They produce a series of waves that move outward
like ripples on a pond. Scientists are now hoping to detect these
gravitational waves, and verify Einstein’s prediction… using precision lasers and some
of the most perfect large-scale vacuums ever created. At the Laser Interferometry Gravitational
Wave Observatory, known as LIGO, they are hoping to record… The collision of ultra-dense remnants of dead
stars known as neutron stars and of black holes. According to computer simulations, as two
black holes spiral into a fateful embrace, the energy carried by each gravity wave rises
five orders of magnitude above a gamma ray burst, to a hundred billion trillion times
the power of our sun. Does the collision of black holes define the
known power limits of our universe? Perhaps not. As turbulent as the environment of a black
hole might be, its true power may well lie deep in its core. A black hole’s mass is enshrouded within
a dark sphere called the event horizon. Since the 1920s, scientists have described
the mathematics of the event horizon as the equivalent of a waterfall. It’s the point
of no return, beyond which water falls freely into the gorge. At the event horizon of a black hole, space
itself falls freely in at the speed of light. If the black hole is spinning, then the flow
spirals down and around an inner horizon that envelops the singularity. That’s the central
region where space-time becomes infinitely warped. Any matter that rides this river of space
whips around the inner horizon so fast that centrifugal force tends to fling it back out. As that happens, it collides with matter that’s
streaming in, whipping up a ferocious cosmic storm. The energy of the colliding streams feeds
upon itself, rising to what may well be a limit imposed by nature. It dissipates only
as it falls into the singularity and disappears. Fortunately, for us, gravity walls off such
energy extremes behind the event horizon, where they cannot affect the rest of the universe. And so here we sit. Our world is nestled within
a vast stream of cosmic energy, somewhere between the spin of an electron and the maelstrom
of a black hole. There’s no telling whether a future Earth
civilization will be able harness enough energy to advance into the cosmos. For now, as we tap into the tiny morsels of
power at our disposal, we venture a closer look at a universe blazing with activity. We are its product and its star struck admirer. 1

100 thoughts on “The Most Powerful Objects in the Universe

  1. After decades of researching and searching for the gravity waves in vein, LIGO suddenly found them when funding was running out. They "saw" the collision of two black holes creating the "gravity waves". Yea, and then their funding was resumed. What a coincidence! Another one of those science fiction tricks. Just like the "discovery" of Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider for ten billion dollars!

  2. Yawn. This is the party line science dogma myth of everything. Can't stand watching any more of these guesses disguised as proven facts. They just try to wow you with great graphics & dramatic music & most everybody falls for the presentation. It would be ok if this was categorized under fiction.

  3. Amazing video, I doooo looooove watch SpaceRip videos. You guys are the best by far.

  4. What Earth world timeframe is the Alice voyage returning from Junieyar?

  5. My favorite most powerful object in the universe are gramma ray brust

  6. Any object in the universe has greater than itself, so we cannot delineate the size of objects by calling them the largest


  8. A trillion trillion watts:
    1,000,000,000,000 is 1 trillion
    1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (or a trillion trillion) is 1 septillion.


  10. to me this is the proof for the existence  of God. just think about it people. something MUST have created this whole perfection. this cannot come from nothing. nothing can come from nothing!!! Many facts  about  the universe were  written down in the  Quran a long  long  time ago even before today's scientists found out. Look it up! everything in the universe is so perfect, for example planet Neptune is protecting the earth from meteorites. And we human are so unique. We all have different fingerprints. and so on.

  11. A distortion of space and time. Hmmmm… What should I call it…?

    I got it!!!!!!!

    It shall be called!
    (Dramatic pause)


  12. Recent discoveries have found something that reaches far beyond these things.

    Big Chungus.

  13. All initiations are into energy,away from mater form& pleasure, away from humanity certainly, we are only a part;if we incorporate a star's life cycle into our daily economics, it will become whole, we will retain our perspectives,can help culture&civilisation to propel with out discontinuty;discontinuity in membrane is called an Ulcer or cancer;economics or money is certainly not law, forget about ultimate truth, it is only temporal supply& demand

  14. The digit 1 carrying 100 zeroes is called a Google, nothing in the universe exceeds this number

  15. Summarized – We are simple as fuck as a species & a long way from attaining a Level 1 civilization.

    Going to need one hell of a miracle to survive the process of attaining Level 1 Civilization status & it's doubtful we will get there fully intact!

    #RIP all involved in the process of attaining Level 1 Civilization.

  16. I AM Life that creates and teaches all forms of life, in a newer and more peaceful world.

  17. Unfortunately I did not gain any additional knowledge from this video. I've wasted my valuable time.

  18. I hate to burst your bubble, but… your quote (at 13:22): “… the Milky Way galaxy produces 3 trillion yatawatts, that’s a 3 with 36 zeros…” It is Not! That’s a 3 with 12 zeros. Please do the math next time. Yada, yada, yada…

  19. Someone once told me that if the planet Earth were to fall into a black hole it would come out the size of a grapefruit but still weigh the same!

  20. 2164(49), 25(1), 910, 2/15/2019(46), 6/3/2017, 5847(2086-2087), 5850(2089-2090), 11/13/2015(10/13/2010), 2034(2…3),  4/19/2013(1290), 28(5), 1290(7-1), 91(7-1), 829, 829(69), 928, 2, 2062(2…3), 2061(1…2), 2049(3…4). [23(10)22(5-7)8]. [43(18)43(5-14)86]. [46(20)44(5-16)88]. [56(25)54(5-20)884]. [69(30)66(5-25)888].

  21. Hey everyone, if you like this video you should check out more space and science videos in 4k at

  22. So if I had a treadmill and had it hooked up to a battery something like a solar battery and ran on it, would the energy from the treadmill moving transfer to the battery? So I could use it to power my house?.

  23. According to debeers commercials, gold is a yellow color. Blue Gold makes me think that Polo does not do any research when introducing a new product

  24. can't wait till a meteor crashes on the planet and devastates everything. it would be na unforgettable sight

  25. By the way there is no God where was he in the begainn of time..if thhre was no space or time

  26. someone who is not interested is so ignorant because they think this is nothing but something they dumbs called "boring" shit, if they think that this is not cool because it's about what they called "boring science" then better to become a nerd than to become a fool😑

    09.07. юли. туесдай. 2019.а. К – Келл. 01 : 29 : 06

  28. He forgot two of the most abundant forms of energy which is Dark matter and Dark energy.

  29. Everything was interesting to the point when he compared The SUN with a russian bomb 😂😂😂 that ended all

  30. This is one of the best documentaries of this type I have ever seen… A very imaginative approach! Superb! Thanks!

  31. I claim shenanigans with this list, my dick game should have made the top 5 at least…don't believe me? Ask your mom.

  32. Dick Rodstein's immaculate narration is such a relief after suffering through legions of mumbling or machine-gun-speed attempts in so many documentaries today, many of them otherwise offering excellent content. I wish Mr. Rodstein's delivery could be the standard for voiceover content! I'm sure the production company made the decision to provide this wonderful bonus, and I'm grateful to Mr. Lucas for that.

  33. Wow! Why are we finding this out so late in Earth's time or space-time? We just found out that the Earth is NOT at the center of the universe but a speck absorbed in our solar system AND that we circle the Sun!

  34. 15 tons of fuel per second, that's roughly a tanker truck full of fuel consumed per second….

  35. Its quite funny how one source says the Milky Way Galaxy has 200 million stars(as this video says), then other sources says 100-400 BILLION stars, and other sources says 1 Trillion(or more) stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. Its clear that with all the mainstream technology we have, no source can say for certain how many stars our Milky Way Galaxy has. Yet with this said, mainstream science tries so very hard to make people believe that Earth is the ONLY likely planet in our Galaxy, and our universe that has intelligent life(humans), yet we cant even decide how many actual stars reside in our own Galaxy, let alone the trillion, or more likely infinite amount of galaxies our universe has, and not to mention other likely universes(probably infinite too). Ohh how mainstream academia has fooled the general population

  36. I live and work in Alabama. Alot of people think that my state is all backwards, when in fact without the company i work for in Huntsville, Alabama at Marshall space flight center , there would of not been a man on the moon in 1969. There would be no Saturn 5 rocket. Think about that the next time you stereotype ALL people from Alabama.

  37. I can actually take in the science in these videos, even as burnt out on weed as I am .. ta 😁

  38. Turned the video odff at around 3:35 when he said "The Universe is a closed system" NO The Universe is NOT a closed system,no system is!

  39. Quick question if our universe is still expanding how do we know it is a closed system?

  40. a fukin question has been bugging my azz for a long time..

    "What if one day we find out that advanced aliens are eating through their Azzes and shiting through their opposite directions(that I don't want to name it) And realizing All this time we have been wrong and they do that shit right.."

    think again ppl

  41. The most powerful explosions are those of a super Nova. A super Nova is a star which has exceeded its mass to motion ratio on its super large core. The core of a stellar mass in general is a stable structure if its dimensions remain at about fifteen to seventeen percent of is stellar diameter. Isolated stellar masses cannot get rid of mass through radiation fast enough to prevent its core structure from exceeding these dimensions and they can reach thirty to thirty five percent of the stellar dimensions. This results in a nuclear explosion of most of the core structure in a time frame that we call three to five minutes. Such stellar masses are often one point five times our Sun's mass and fifty to sixty percent of this mass is radiated away as Gamma rays in the described period. Every thing within a light year miles distance is converted into electromagnetic wave energy and nothing remains but a gravity compressed body of a mass that has a density that is perhaps ten thousand time as dense as any element we know of. It is so compact that neither fusion nor normal radiation generation can take place and its only evidence is in its magnetic field which is so powerful that it prevents anything, even radiation from reaching the remaining mass body. The universe reclaims its due through magnetic field deteoration where is rotation reaches the bodies "c" value.

  42. When one looks at all of the mass bodies in the universe the one thing that is most evident is the mass of nearly all stellar bodies. Stars are the work horses of all galaxies. Science can say what it likes but ninety nine point ninety nine to the tenth place are stellar bodies having a mas no greater than one point two times the mass of our Sun. Its physical dimensions may be many times our Sun's size but its mass remains consistent with the mass parameters of all stellar bodies. Beteguese is said to be a hundred fifty times our Sun's diameter but it contains approximately the same amount of mass as our Sun does. The universe calculates motion as a product of the density point of each stellar bodies site. While we see our Sun's surface as traveling at some two hundred fifty thousand miles per hour(sic) the density at or near its core seat is in relative motion at near zero speed. At that point on the core where relative motion reaches zero speed the universe reclaims that mass as radiation regardless of how deep it is within the body of the Sun. This is where all of the radiation generated by the Sun begins. It also proves that a black hole mass cannot exist, What science is seeing is a void in space where no mass can exist due to the opposing gravitational masses of all the stars surrounding that point in space. If we look at any group of stars from three or four up to a few thousands they all orbit a common point in space. That point has no mass component because all of the stars are exerting an equal gravitational force on that point. The so called black hole mass is a result of billions of stars doing the same thing on a galactic central point.. .

  43. We're going about it the wrong way. We've had great minds come up with better more efficient ways of freeeeeeeeeeeeee energy!!!! No need to use fossil fuels anymore. We would be traveling to other galaxies if it weren't for the ignorance in this sad world

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